THAT LANGUAGE NAMED SANSKRIT
Speech delivered at the 4th conference on Historical Analytics at Potsdam on 2008-09-12
The language Sanskrit rates as the most developed and most complicatedly organized language. Even the dating acrobats of all countries agree on the issue that “Sanskrit” came into being earlier than the traditional European languages. Nobody knows when this language was an actually spoken one. I leave gladly the questions and answers as to this item to the “indologists” and dating artists, who succeeded in getting the chronology of the modern history of the culture of mankind to fit in a remarkable way into the Christian history of the creation of the world.
We have all been allowed to know that within the memory of man exacting and philosophical literary works such as the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Sutras, Brahmanas etc. are being learned, read and recited in “India” in a language called Sanskrit. I think that this is how it is still being taught nowadays. Still, in this old literature a country called “India” just does not occur. The homeland of this literature is Bharatavarsa.
What is nowadays circulating worldwide as Sanskrit is a written language brought into the open by so-called indologists from Europe as late as in the 19th century. Their “indology” is said to be the science about “India”. “Indologists” and “indology” pretend something unique in the history of science. They are up to describe the history and culture of that vast area, extending from the South of the Himalaya up to the oceans, called Bharatavarsa, shortly old “India”, its inhabitants, its culture, its history by means of a written language named Sanskrit – that is by means of its characters, words, sentences, texts only.
A language is always instrumental for the exchange of thoughts. A rich language is the expression of a rich treasure of experience of those who have shaped the language.
Writing has nothing to do with the wealth of a language. The availability of writing characters is a later development than that of the language itself. Disclosing a foreign language by its written expression is hardly possible and does certainly not reveal the treasure of experience of a language.
I am not a sociologist. As a scientist in the field of social sciences I am constantly reducing my readiness to believe and I do ask more questions than others. In the process I have often discovered stories of major significance, untold so far.
Since the foundation of the Oldenburg University I shaped my teaching in the department of social sciences into projects of “learning by research”, i. e. it started with research about open questions and learning happened through research instead of exercising it along pre-fabricated theories.
In 1996 we wanted to find out since when the notion of “Indo-Germans”, “Indo-Europeans” and “Aryans” had existed. In 2004 I was able to bring the project to a conclusion in my book: LÜGEN MIT LANGEN BEINEN – Entdeckungen, Gelehrte, Wissenschaft, Aufklärung. Dokumentarische Erzählung, 440 pages, ISBN 3-935418-02-7. I wrote in German. I could not find a person who could have translated it in English. Then I tried to translate myself. I could not translate. Ultimately I made an English version of the book: LIES WITH LONG LEGS – Discoveries, scholars, science, enlightenment – Documentary narration”, 404 pages, Hardcover, ISBN 81-87374-32-2, SAMSKRITI, New Delhi.
We did not find “Indo-Germans”, “Indo-Europeans” and “Aryans”, yet we found their inventors.In spite of obvious contradictions, they invented stories made it and succeeded in being accepted by the oncoming generations of scientists. The inventors are given places of honour in the ancestors’ gallery of modern history. Some of them are among the pillar saints. All these learned men have earned their place of honour by mendacious yarn. Many of them have used respectively abused this yarn. Not only Adolf Hitler.
I was however at first left speechless by what these learned men and their disciples have dared to do with the language Sanskrit. I am not a “Sanskrit-scholar”. I am not a scholar at all. I am a simple seeker. I had to learn in a tiresome way to ask questions, imperturbably and pitiless and to seek the answers.
It has been quite a time since I stopped dealing with scholarly assertions unless I knew who the scholar concerned was, how he got to his theme, how he got to postulate his assertion, who provided for his upkeep, who profited from the results of his work and who lost; short: before I have full knowledge of his documented biography.
As I said: we did not find “Indo-Germans”, “Indo-Europeans” and “Aryans”, but we found a language named Sanskrit. A language called Sanskrit does indeed exist. Here are shortly a few random points of the story I could tell, or rather I would like to tell.
The “great discoverers” are the ones who fall first into “India” robbing, murdering, carrying away everything which could be removed. They occupy the country and exploit it on a long term. After the first consolidation the respectable society hires mercenaries with a gift for rhetoric, to lay the foundations for a long lasting exploitation and oppression. In the process, they are faced with literature in a language no more spoken but somehow omnipresent in the country. There they have a problem. The language appears to be called Sanskrit.
Since 1786 it is being asserted that there exists a narrow philological kinship between Sanskrit, that language of the Northwest Indians on the one side and Greek, Latin as well as the German and Celtic languages on the other. From there it is just one small step to the “family of Indo-European languages”.
Looted ancient texts, later also “Sanskrit”, are being hauled to Europe, the language of the texts squeezed into Sanskrit-English dictionaries and by means of these dictionaries the texts translated. The dictionaries are then brought to India together with the translations of old texts to be taught in the schools and universities established by the “colonizers”.
I promise to tell an informative as well as thrilling story. Which was the way Sanskrit travelled from “India” to Europe? Who were those who taught and spread this language in Europe and when, how and from whom did they learn it before?
From the end of the 19th century indology is being taught everywhere in German universities. Nothing goes in the field of indology without that language named Sanskrit.
But how did this language named Sanskrit travel to Europe? Who discovered it? Where? When? Travelling back on this search a first lighthouse comes in sight. It was not before the 2nd February, 1786 that what the founder and president of the Asiatick Society in Kolkata proclaimed in a solemn speech as his own discovery was irrefutably accepted.
“The Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists: there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothick and Celtick,though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanscrit; and one the old Persian might be added to the same family, if this were the place for discussing any question concerning the antiquities of Persia.”
This president of the “Asiatick Society” in Kolkata did not tell us how he came to his discovery. No modern scientist has ever questioned his discovery so far. The name of this president is William Jones, Sir William Jones, 40 years old, appointed as a British judge in Kolkata since the autumn of 1783.
The real tricky point of this bold discovery is the fact that in 1786 this remarkable Sir William, as proved by evidence, could neither speak a language by the name of Sanskrit nor any of the languages spoken in British India. It cannot be assessed how good his Greek might have been.
Within months from his arrival in Kolkata he did found his “Asiatick Society”. Only colonial exploiters of British descent have access to it. No Asians. William Jones uses this “Asiatick Society” of his own to transport his Asian stories by means of a series of periodical papers called “Asiatic Researches”, financed by the East India Company. This is the first factory of systematic faking of history and of brainwashing. Even nowadays we are not exempt from it.
Who is this William Jones really? Born in 1746. His impoverished mother, who has to raise him alone, driven by ambition, dresses him into a man unconditionally and diligently seeking ways to making well in the world by all means. Under great material sacrifices she succeeds in getting him accepted in Harrow, the exclusive grammar school. Already whilst at Harrow he develops into an upstart without scruples, an adventurer par excellence. But he suffers because of the destitution of his mother and his sister.
Afterwards he studies literature at Oxford. He earns there the nickname “Oriental Jones”, based on his own assumption to master the Arabic, Persian and Chinese language. He pretends to have translated poems from these languages into English. Who is to check this? Amongst blind people the one-eyed is a king. He did not disclose when, where for how long and from whom he learned these languages.
In the spring of 1765 he had an unexpected dash of luck. He had not yet ended the 19th year of his life. He was offered the position of house teacher for 7-years old Lord George John Althorp, the son of Count John Spencer. How? A recommendation through complicated channels.
On the 5th of September, 1768 William Jones begs Lady Spencer by letter to ask Lord Spencer to solicit the 3rd Duke of Grafton, who was Chief of the Cabinet to King George III from 1767 to 1770, to recommend him for the almost honorary professorship for modern languages at Oxford (approx. £ 400 for three to four lectures p.a.). The alleged reason for this move was not his own striving but the fact that his friends had prompted him to apply for the job.
Well, the appointment to the honorary professorship did not come about. Nevertheless, he put his “knowledge of Oriental languages” so efficiently to market that the said 3rd Duke of Grafton offered him soon the well paid position of an interpreter for Oriental languages. A most lucrative offer indeed, for a 22-years old young man, who was not able to prove at all his alleged knowledge of “Oriental languages”. What a fortunate event! Besides, this remarkable William allegedly suffers so much because he is not able to provide financial support for his mother and his sister.
He is said to have refused the offer in writing. The reason remains undisclosed, because his letter allegedly cannot be found anymore. At this point I am tempted to speculate. He would have accepted the offer, had he been actually able to render the services of an interpreter for Oriental languages. He would have soon become ambassador of his country in one of the “oriental countries”. But serve as an interpreter in state affairs is always a serious thing. To bluff and to swindle in seminars or salons involves a lesser risk. His impudence had reached its limits.
On the 19th of September, 1770 he began studying law at the Middle Temple. 1774 William Jones qualified as a lawyer. As time went by he makes the acquaintance of important persons of the London society, he belongs to it, but still does not get any lucrative job.
At the time the East India Company had occupied large regions in Bharatavarsa. As early as 1773 these are declared as property of the Crown and thenceforth jointly ruled by a “Governor General” and a “Council” of four members. As an intermediate authority a tribunal called “Supreme Court of Judicature” was installed. The latter had four well paid judges. They were all appointed for an office term of five years by the British Parliament and the board of governors of the East India Company.
Stephen Caesar LeMaistre, one of the judges of the “Supreme Court” in Kolkata, dies in November 1777. The news of his death reaches England in the spring of 1778. William Jones wants the job; after all he is the “Orientalist” in the country and a lawyer as well. This “Orientalist” happens to be convinced that “Persian is the same as <Indian>”, but, after all, what does it matter! Besides, he has access to Lady Spencer.
He has been now and then advisor to the government on colonial affairs. His endeavour to get hold of the job of the fourth ranking judge in Kolkata does however fail. Disappointed, he is about to migrate to America. He makes all preparations. He takes also up as a lawyer the case of a friend in an estate matter in West Virginia. He sends embittered goodbye-letters and books the passage on a ship. As he is almost on his way, but still before travelling from Dover to Calais, on the 3rd of March, 1783 he gets the news of his appointment to the job as a judge, in spite of the fact that in the meantime he had put his foot in all kinds of places.
He drops America and his friend. The inheritance of his friend from the West Virginia estate of about 50.000 $ and the conspicuous fee which had been agreed upon are of no more interest to him. He puts pen to paper and sells his soul to his supposed patron. The supposed patron is however only a supposed one. He therefore sells his soul a second time, after having learned who had been the real patron.
At this stage the King of England does not allow a “William Jones” to travel to the colonies without a title. Anyone about to take up a leading position for the Company in Bengal must bear a “honourable” title, “Sir” at least. Hectic days. After his appointment, William Jones is knighted on the 20th of March. On the 8th of April Sir William marries his beloved Anna Maria Shipley, a rich woman about his age. He is thirty-seven now. Time to say “goodbye”. Bengal is far away. The frigate “Crocodile” sails on the 11th of April.
It is not recorded whether he had any literature about “India” in his luggage on this voyage lasting several months. At the time there were many reliable books about “India”, not by Christian – European authors, but at any rate by Persian, Arab and ancient Greek writers. William Jones is said to have had command of these three languages. It is certainly not incidental that, according to records, he had the “Book of the Books” in his luggage.
During five long months he is secluded within the “Crocodile”. He has therefore lots of time. Time enough, anyway, to discover the most zealous missionary in the depth of his soul. He recalls again “Oriental Jones”. As such he has “sold” Bengal – both under a cultural and linguistic aspect – as “Persia’s backyard”. Well, those he is dealing with are ignorant. Still, I am indeed amused by his announcing in writing already before his arrival on Bengals soil a number of great intellectual “discoveries”. Nobody wondered. Up to this day. Or does a “genius” know everything beforehand? What, where and when he will really discover? And how can one know what he will discover if the object to be discovered has already been known for quite a time? Or shall we have an afterthought about the “age of discovery”?
He is clever enough to foresee that he can tell whatever he wishes from far away Bengal. The main requirement is that the tale should sound plausible, that it should be saleable and not damaging to the Crown. He developed a mammoth programme: sixteen themes about the history of mankind. He does not want to make the Asian world known in Europe through translations of Asian literature. No. He wants to describe himself the spiritual world of Asia.
As a matter of fact he did not only lay the foundation stone of his construction. The products of his “factories” and of those of Sir William’s descendants are accepted as valid up to this day.
Sanskrit as it is taught today is one of these products from Kolkata. Indology too, as far as its cause is concerned. Not earlier than in the late 19th century did the indologists realize that the oldest and most exacting literature from Bharatavarsa, the Vedas, are not written in the language named or called Sanskrit, but in the Vedic language, which is remarkably older than “Sanskrit”. Just as “Sanskrit” is older than Prakrit. Only the characters are common to all of them. Who has knowledge of these characters will, of course, be able to decipher Veda texts as well as Prakrit or “Sanskrit”, but he will neither articulate nor understand them. The European tradition of Veda literature, which is still on the “market” today, is a translation made as if the original text were written in a language called Sanskrit. This fact alone, if subject to a correct evaluation, shows that the “indological” print products as such are not worth the paper used to print them.
To keep the confusion within limits, a bit of information beforehand, as a reference. It does not originate from the treasure box of the “Indologists”, nor from modern sciences. In a nutshell.
According to tradition prior to “indology” three main languages had existed in Bharatavarsa for a long time. In the time prior to written characters. “Bhoota Bhasha”, “Chhando Bhasha” and “Laukika Bhasha”. ”Bhasha” means language. In the traditional Veda literature “Bhoota Bhasa” was not used. “Chhando Bhasha” is the language of the Vedas. Many among the commentaries about the Vedas are handed down in “Laukika Bhasha”. “Laukika Bhasha” is the real Sanskrit.
A long time had elapsed and many ways had been gone before characters of writing were invented as an external device to store these languages. Compressing sounds into characters. “Bhoota Bhasha” has 42 characters, “Chhando Bhasha”, the language of the Vedas, 97 and “Laukika Bhasha”, Sanskrit, 63, respectively 64 characters. It is not exactly handed down whether also “Bhoota Bhasha” has invented characters. It is known that “Chhando Bhasha” invented first the “Brahmi” characters and later on Devanagari. Devanagari is also the type of characters of “Laukika Bhasha”. After the invention of Devanagari a fourth language is handed down: “Devanagari Bhasha” with 51 characters.
I would like to conclude this part of the reference with two questions to be thought over thoroughly:
How many characters do the mother tongues of the “Indologists” have?
And what does the different number of characters mean?
The last mentioned three languages with Devanagari characters share a common particular aspect. Even the shortest sounds, the syllables, are formed according to strict rules. And their importance differs. The main syllables, the roots, so-to-speak, unfold into words in which other syllables join them, at the beginning or at the end or both ways. The meaning of the “root-syllables” varies also according to the way words are being formed.
Without knowledge of the single syllables, of their manifold combinations and of the grammar rules the words cannot be understood.
Even identical words have a different meaning according to their position within the sentence and to the meaning of the sentence as a whole. The meaning of the sentence depends again from the meaning of the whole paragraph. This is why in these languages traditionally no dictionaries existed.
Instead of dictionaries there are comprehensive grammar books. How the seeds (root-syllables) develop into a tree with ramifications (the meaning of the whole paragraph), is something which cannot be learned the quick way. Even grammar books do not arise from nil. The coming into existence of comprehensive grammar books presupposes comprehensive literary, metaphysical and scientific books. And not the other way round.
The later rules of grammar are helpful in order to understand the meaning of the books. No matter whatever “linguistic scientists” or “scientists of comparative linguistic” may say. Without a feeling for the Veda metaphysics and for Veda sciences these languages cannot be learned. It might even be that they have at no time been learned for everyday use. Nowhere. This might be the reason why out from real Sanskrit Prakrit, Pali (the language of Buddhist literature) and up to the 14 main languages which are mentioned in the constitution of the Republic of India have developed.
Just as a marginal remark: from Pali downwards several types of characters have been invented. These new languages have 43 characters.
Grammar, i. e. the complex of rules, is in no language a purpose to itself. The complex of rules for a language does not depend upon the invention of writing. It comes into being earlier. We do seldom realize that characters and writing are only vehicles developed at a later stage as means for the transport of spoken messages. And such vehicles are superfluous when there is nothing to transport.
The scientists of the blond-blue-eyed-white-Christian culture – please do not stumble over this notion, a short explanation will follow – haven’t spent a thought about the question why there were no dictionaries for vedic language and real Sanskrit. They have just jumped at producing dictionaries. They were never able or never willing to understand that these old languages using Devanagari characters just cannot be shortened. We shall soon hear what the consequence thereof has been.
Blond-blue-eyed-white-Christian culture is not a notion but the name of the four pillars on which rests the culture which rules today. Before the systematic occupation, robbery, murder and annihilation of cultural goods of non-Christian cultures there has, as far as I know, been no differentiation of mankind based on outer marks. The systematic occupation, robbery, murder and annihilation of cultural goods of non-Christian cultures are still being carried on under different masks. Crusades, “reconquista”, piracy, colonization, world- wars recognized as such, bombings (including atomic weapons), crusades for democracy, humanitarian intervention are the names of these masks.
This culture is rooted in the very first “revelation”. The “God” reveals the truth and the ten “commandments” to Moses. So it is said. Well. Why does a God reveal the truth to a singular person? Is there any alternative left thereafter for others, for the rest, than either to believe in this revelation or to be made to believe? Questions like these had never been relevant for Jews, Christians and Muslims, all descending from this culture of revelation. In practice it is a culture structured by belief, by misuse of might and by untruthfulness. The Jews and the Muslims however were less dominant so far. How was the human society before the advent of Moses? Long before Moses? The history of the mankind is much longer than the short history after Moses, isn’t it?
No misunderstanding. I am also a part of this culture. And I cannot push aside that Goebbels und Hitler were prototypes of blond-blue-eyed-white-Christian culture for thousand years in Germany. I also esteem the statues of Jesus Christ in the churches, eyes inclusive. I have dealt with these four pillars in details in the book “Lies with long legs”.
I close this bit of information remarking: terms like “immigration”, “race”, “caste”, “India”, “Hindu”, “belief”, “religion”, “temple”, etc. just do not originate from Bharatavarsa. There is no mention of these and similar terms in the ancient literature of Bharatavarsa. These are foreign inventions. Mostly by colonizers.
All species known to us achieve mutual understanding by sounds and gestures. Each species avails itself respectively possesses a specific limited extension of sounds and gestures. Cats and dogs are thus able to understand each other in all countries without scientific support. Also people of all countries have always understood each other and do it to this day. Without the support of linguistic or similar “sciences”.
Since when do these many sciences about communication exist at all?
Are they pre- or post-colonial?
Only mankind has got farther than the slightly modulated sounds and gestures of the other species for the purpose of mutual exchange of information. I don’t know whether other species like ants have reached a likely performance.
The original exchange of information by our ancestors must have taken place by sound and gestures, face-to-face. Everywhere.
I imagine that our ancestors became aware of their environment and of the world in an increasingly qualified and constantly more precise way. And in the process of exchange of their awareness and experiences they have developed the span of sounds into language and the gesture into descriptive art. I imagine furthermore that this process of systematizing was a long lasting, laborious way and that it would not have been possible without the kind of exchange face-to-face. Various observations, perceptions, interpretations and opinions were exchanged, discussed, checked, adjusted and agreed upon. Always by mutual agreement. Continuously. The contents agreed upon were memorized.
Every exchange face-to-face, whether of experiences, observations, opinions, imaginations, reports about happenings or stories based on lies acts upon us, alters us and we do grow, in whatever direction this may be. During such an exchange we see and hear each other directly. Without any intermediate aids or devices. We observe any whim of the face and register any emphasis of the speech. We have a reciprocal access to questions and comments. No type of exchange other than this can more efficiently make sure that the contents of the information can be transferred unequivocally and truly. The various sounds and visual signals characterize various connexions of experiences. By mutual agreement.
In our times, too, this kind of exchange is the main one used in everyday life. Without any lasting misunderstandings. This is why we are able to make ourselves mutually understood without any scientific “aids”. If the quality of this type of exchange were not exceptionally good and convincing, the accumulation of knowledge would never have come about.
It is still a long way to knowledge in many fields – to sciences, to grammar. And this long journey needs no writing as a vehicle to external storage. In other words: The development of alphabet, syllable, word, speech, literature, philosophy and grammar does not presuppose the existence of writing. Writing is an external store and vehicle.
When does the need for writing as a store – and vehicle – arise? I assume that it is undisputed by all sides that the head had served its purpose for a long time to store all kinds of completed thematic treatises. As the quantity increases errors do come up in the course of time when recalling the knowledge stored in the head. The regular occurring of errors in an irregular chronological sequence must have prompted our ancestors to find many ways in order to secure an exchange free of errors:
And the marks developed into characters and writing, going by steps through drawings, graphic representations, symbols.
The variety of external stores handed down as supports for the storage in the head and the development of “phonetics” in the writing are unmistakable evidence of the fact that our ancestors always considered external stores as a substitute for audio-visually supported storage in the head, so to speak as a “second choice of reliability” and that they had always been worried about the loss of sound and gesture whilst making use of external stores. With the invention of writing as a tool for exchange we missed not only the heights and depths of the sound and the whims of the face as an expression whilst talking, but also the exchange from face to face. We are thus always in danger of having to put up with the “second choice of reliability” or worse.
It is undisputed that the invention and development of writing, the discovery of mobile weatherproof materials up to the easy multiplication of books without writing have been formidable performances of cultural technology. Writing made it possible that accumulated knowledge - although in a slim form implicating errors – can be stored outside of the human head in a comparatively easy accessible way. The limits of time and space for the exchange can thus be overcome. Writing as a medium for external storage, as an intermediate addition to the direct exchange, can foster our knowledge. Without any doubt. But only as an intermediate addition. Without the storage in the head and the exchange face to face the value of the external stores is diminished.
Now back to the language named Sanskrit and to its hiking way to Europe.
Alexander the Macedonian (2300 years ago) was the first European ruffian who put his foot on Bharatavarsa’s soil. The ancient Greeks did trade with Bharatavarsa even before the first “revelation” in the history of mankind. Alexander would not have taken upon himself this effort, had nothing about the rich civilisation and culture beyond the river Shindu (Greek “Indos”) been known to him already beforehand. No ruffian gang leader plans a depredating robbery into the blue or into regions where there is nothing worth being robbed. It is known that Alexander did not enter deep into India. He suffered sensitive setbacks. He had to start his retreat. He died already at the age of 32. Yet the ancient Greeks have handed out to posterity a great deal of valuable knowledge about Bharatavarsa, but nothing at all about a language called Sanskrit. Nothing about a language at all.
St. Thomas set foot upon this soil 1600 years ago, not as a ruffian,but as a refugee. With his followers. The Thomas-Christians are still in the South, where they had landed. Fully integrated.
The Portuguese Vasco da Gama is the next European ruffian who set foot upon the soil of Bharatavarsa which he reached by sea. He did not land in Goa, as is commonly assumed, but in Cochin. Because of the streams and of the winds. He did not carry any goods for trade or exchange, no money for buying goods, but strong men instead, many weapons and Catholic clergymen. Almost one third of the troopers he had hired [letting them believe that they would return home as rich men] did not survive the long outside journey by sea.
Cochin and the coast towards South are densely populated. Not so suitable for robbery incursions. So Vasco da Gama sailed along the coast in a northern direction. He settled down at the solitary southern edge of Mormugao Bay, where the river Zuari flows into the sea. The distance between this anchorage and Cochin amounts to more than 800 kilometres and between the said anchorage and Old-Goa there are lots of water and about 45 kilometres over land.
From the anchorage he undertakes small predatory attacks. Food is needed. He relies on the effect of surprise. He gets nowhere into trouble. The unexpected brutality causes surprise. Thus also fear spreads. The invaders build barricades. This is how the occupation begins, nowadays spoken of in a palliative way as the building of strongholds. Yet another example of Christian moral doctrine. He is in no hurry. Winds and streams allow sailing outward and back only in a yearly rhythm. There is enough time left for spying out.
Vasco da Gama sails with a ship fully loaded with robbed goods back to Portugal. The remaining ruffians with their weapons and their clergymen stay on, they rob on a small scale, spy out and wait for reinforcements. Henceforth the Portuguese sail with fleets of more ships, on the outward journey with as many troopers, weapons and clergymen as possible, then homewards with a full booty. After eleven years of careful preparation, the ruffian called Alfonso de Albuquerque takes the capital city, now known as Old Goa, from its Moslem ruler Adil Adil Shah. Adil Adil Shah was the son of the Moslem ruffian, Mahmud Gawan, who had driven away the native ruler in 1470.
The celebrated and alleged great discoverer Vasco da Gama had previously “discovered” Goa at least three times, Alfonso de Albuquerque at least twice. The annihilation of the Moslem rule war so thorough, that nowadays nothing reminiscent of the earlier time can be found even in the archaeological museum of Old Goa, not to speak of the townscape. Churches, cathedrals and the basilica, all richly decorated in gold, characterize the townscape. As we know, the Portuguese acted as a “colonial power” for a very long time, i. e. exactly 450 years.
Historians and indologists of the blonde-blue eyed-white-Christian culture have marketed the fairytale that Vasco da Gama had been the great discoverer of the seaway to India. This assertion is not even half true. There had already been a lively trade by seaways even before the Portuguese and other Europeans knew that the earth is by no means a disc, but a planet.
The purpose of this story about the great discoverer is to conceal that these mercenaries gave the start also in Bharatavarsa to the age of robbery, genocide, occupation, deprivation of rights and continuous exploitation. This procedure was then minced by calling it “colonialism”, which made capitalism possible in the first place. Always with fraudulent labelling, by courtesy of European “scholars”. At the time of Vasco da Gama the Christian cross was brought into the hunting grounds; this is the case today with the alleged liberty granting democracy. Both are fig leafs for robbery, murder, occupation, deprivation of rights and the continuous exploitation of alien territories.
In the year 1518 the Franciscans settled in Goa. The order of the Jesuits had just been founded in 1540, as already in 1542 the Jesuit missionary Francisco Xavier (1506-1552) came to Goa, 1548 followed the Dominicans and 1572 the Augustinians. Other Christian orders followed.
The Portuguese ruffians and missionaries are maniacs as far as robbery and conversion are concerned. There are hardly any traces of linguistic interchange. A few clumsy glossaries and grammar books of local languages for their own use have been handed down. Much more was not achieved, not even by that most noble amongst Roman nobility, father Roberto de Nobili, who was by no means second to William Jones as far as impudence, cunning and unscrupulousness are concerned. He, too, became aware of the high culture in Bharatavarsa and tried to colonize it in his own way. He did, however, not get far enough to reach the language of the rich old literature of Bharatavarsa.
What Filippo Sassetti from Florence brought to paper on the 27th of January, 1585 should not remain unmentioned. He had entered employment as a commercial servant of many European gentlemen who were interested in the profit from exploitation between Goa and Cochin. He is inasmuch an exceptional character in the gallery of Christian exploiters, since he was neither a ruffian nor a missionary. He was actually an esteemed scholar and philosopher in Florence, well acquainted with the Medici. He was compelled to earn money for familiar reasons.
“...We may say, so it seems to me, that the disease of this century is that in all parts of the world sciences are (written) in a language other than the one which is being spoken; by which disease all these people are affected as well, since their language differs so much from the one in which their science is (written) that they need 6 years’ time to learn it; this because they do not act as the Jews, who teach their children the language of the laws as we teach parrots to speak; but these here have the grammar and make use of it. The language in itself is pleasant and has a beautiful sound, because of the many elements, of which they have up to 53, of which each has its own ground, because they let them all originate from the different movements of mouth and tongue. They translate easily our notions into their (language), and they deem that we cannot do the same with theirs into our language, because of the lack of half of the elements, or more. It is true that great difficulty is experienced when uttering their words with their sounds and accents (which is what they wish to say); and I think that the cause thereof is to a great extent the different temper of the tongue, because eating at all times that so excellent leaf of herb which they call betel, which is largely astringent and drying, together with that fruit which they call ‘areca’, in ancient times called ‘avellana indica’, and the whole mixed with plaster, they have as a consequence their tongue and mouth dry and quick, whilst the contrary applies to us.”
Filippo Sassetti was however “discovered” for the “great world” as late as about the middle of the 19th century and celebrated as a “precursor” of “comparative linguistics”. He is being falsely credited for having reported in his “Letters from India” about his discovery of the similarity between Sanskrit on one side and Greek and Latin on the other. He never wrote any such thing. He landed in Goa in the autumn of 1583 and died in the autumn of 1588. He wrote a total of 32 letters from India.
A monk belonging to the same order as Roberto de Nobili was the first one to discover Sanskrit as Sanskrit. Heinrich Roth. Of German origin. He was born in Dillingen in 1620 as the son of a lawyer from Augsburg. After his term at school he was a legionnaire in the Swedish army, fled later from the army to Innsbruck, there he was almost beaten to death by a soldier, at his recovery he wished to become a missionary. On the 25th October, 1639 he joined – almost 19 years old – the Jesuit order and was ordained as a priest ten years later. Another year later, in 1650, he is ordered, together with another missionary, to travel to Ethiopia for missionary work. They sail from Livorno in Italy to Smyrna in Turkey, from there they reach travelling on land Isfahan, the then capital city of Persia. There at last they learn that Ethiopia has closed its borders for Catholic missionaries. What now? They decide to travel further to Goa.
They do indeed reach the Jesuit-stronghold in Goa in 1652, therefore 48 years later than Roberto de Nobili. Biographies like the one of Heinrich Roth are typical not only for the Jesuits. They reveal the narrow gap between soldier and missionary, between adventurer and spy, between soldier of fortune and maniac.
Heinrich Roth is said to have learned fast in Goa the languages Kannada, Persian, Urdu and some others as well. We don’t know how. There is a lot among the things which were handed down to us in print as having happened which we are unable to comprehend. Heinrich Roth was transferred from Goa to Agra. Agra is the capital city of the Mogul ruler in the North. He becomes the director of the local Jesuit-college. There he learns Sanskrit for six years. He becomes aware of the significance of Sanskrit for the mission and writes around the year 1660 a grammar with explanations in Latin. So we are told. It is published, however, as a facsimile 1988 in Leiden together with two other manuscripts. Today’s indologists confirm that Heinrich Roth’s grammar was the best compared with all others. This is no wonder. Because Roth has copied from the perfect system of grammar by Panini, an all-time perfect work.
The transfer of Sanskrit to Europe has therefore taken place on the ground of faulty grammar. We have searched after indological acknowledgements of this state of affairs. In vain. This is no theme for indologists.
It is certain that nobody has arranged a hiking trail for the language called Sanskrit using the Catholic track. Therefore back again to the East India Company, back again to Kolkata. The British put more weight on the purchase of human beings than on Christianization in the occupied territories. They buy people on all levels, guided by the principle: divide and rule. The higher ranks of the colonizers buy additionally “Brahmins” as personal advisers, the so-called “Pandits”. Pandit means, translated, scholar.
I shall give no comment about the question whether the hired “Pandits” of the East India Company were scholars. I am asking myself – and you, too – how the linguistic interchange about exacting matters between these “Pandits” and the colonial ruffians might have taken place? Besides, there is no evidence of even a single case in which a known scholar from Bengal or from elsewhere has allowed himself to be put on the pay-list of the East India Company as a “Pandit”.
As Sir William lands in Kolkata in the autumn of 1783, he doesn’t know anything about a language called Sanskrit. He is busy getting his bearings in Kolkata and acquires acknowledgement in the “respectable colonial society” as the “Oriental Jones”. He finds on the spot two printing centres owned by the Company, managed by one Charles Wilkins, who is said to have a good knowledge of the local languages and widespread contacts outside of the Company. He is in Kolkata since 1770. After an illness he is just recovering in Varanasi (after getting its colonial scent mark the city is named Benares), where he pretends to have used the time to learn Sanskrit at the local University. Windy “Oriental Jones” plans his mission, supported by the institution of “Pandits”, the printing centres and 34-years-old Charles Wilkins.
On the 15th of January, 1784 he calls a gathering of the “respectable colonial godfathers” in Kolkata, 13 by number, founds a society of scholars (without scholars) named “Asiatick Society of Bengal” and offers the boss, Governor General Warren Hastings, who in England did not even manage to finish a school, the presidency of this “scholarly society”.
Warren Hastings thanks and declines the offer. On good grounds. As the president he cannot put on the market ”The Asiatick Society of Bengal” as a cultural achievement of his administration as well as he can do it as the supporter in the background. Therefore Sir William takes up the presidency. With great pleasure. Henceforth he loudly supports the uncompromisingly hard “conservative” colonial policy of Warren Hastings. Just by the way he establishes himself as the second personality in order of importance in the colonial regime in Kolkata. The fact that the Whigs under the leadership of his patron and friend Edmund Burke fight uncompromisingly Warren Hastings’ policy doesn’t disturb him in the least.
“The Asiatick Society of Bengal” develops to the first “factory” for deliberately faking history and for systematic brainwashing. Also the first Prime minister of „independent India”, Jawaharlal Nehru, gets his brain washed. This I have narrated in the book LIES WITH LONG LEGS in details.
Asians or Bengalis have no access to “The Asiatick Society of Bengal”. Why should they? They had only to take to heart and propagate the “history” and the “stories” of the new rulers, if they were striving after prosperity in their own lives. And what should Asians or Bengalis have to do there if even the founder of this “factory”, “Oriental Jones”, was not even able to understand what they spoke? The “Asiatick Society of Bengal” sows the seed, which has in logical consequence led to the global yoke of the industrial complex media-manipulation-might.
Sir William also lays the groundwork for the “colonization” and Christianization of culture in Bharatavarsa. Without knowing even one syllable of that language called Sanskrit he elects Charles Wilkins, who due to his fourteen years of stay in Kolkata has local knowledge including that of the languages spoken there, as early as in 1784 to a great “Sanskrit scholar”, in order to position himself as the second greatest “Sanskrit scholar”. This appraisal is valid up to this day.
Who is this Charles Wilkins? About him not so many documents have been handed down as about Robert Clive, Warren Hastings or William Jones. But anyway enough to enable us to understand the systematic aspect of the malice. For the lowest ranks in the colonial service as a rule only such young men could be hired who didn’t make it at home neither to finish a school nor a practical apprenticeship. They are still “teens”. Charles Wilkins wouldn’t have ever stood out – as most of his kind in the East India Company – hadn’t he discovered in Kolkata, rather by chance, his hidden talent for tinkering.
It is the time of consolidation of the rule over Bengal conquered by the East India Company after the battle of Palashy in 1757. Its boss in Kolkata – Warren Hastings, promoted from the lowest rank of ruffians to “Governor General” – wishes to foster the efficiency of the Company’s employees by getting them to learn the languages spoken on the spot. Textbooks in the native languages are needed. Typographers and printers are not so easy to recruit in England for the inhospitable colonial service. This is the hour of Charles Wilkins. He practices casting Bengali characters in lead. Thus he is soon promoted to director of two printing centres.
He was allegedly the first one to translate “Bhagavatgita” into English. The alleged snuff of Sanskrit in the University of Varanasi is said to have enabled him to this avail. Bhagavatgita is one of the central episodes in Mahabharata. The original is not in Vedic language but in Sanskrit. Translations are available in all languages spoken in British India, even in Arab and Persian, also in Kolkata. What holds against an English version? Actually nothing, except that knowledge of the original language would be needed.
Sir William had maintained that he had command of 32 languages. He had himself not been able to name them all together. His “scholarly descendants” neither. He did support Charles Wilkins’ so-called translation of Bhagavatgita. It was embellished with a highly laudatory preface by Warren Hastings, printed by Charles Wilkins in Kolkata and distributed by the East India Company in England. We were not able to unearth a copy of this translation. There is nothing we can say about the role played by “Pandits” in this publication.
This culture of translation controls the market up to this day. The Bhagavatgita has been translated up to now several hundred times by “scholars” of the blond-blue-eyed-white Christian culture. Always from the original, of course.
The second greatest Sanskrit scholar has implored Charles Wilkins from the very beginning to compile for him a dictionary with the help of “Pandits”. Charles Wilkins did not succeed in doing so in Kolkata. Then he sailed back to England in 1786 due to illness. He lived a long life. He is helpless without the “Pandits”. Instead of the dictionary Sir William had been longing for he presented in 1787 the translation of a book. English and French translations of these fairytales from Persian had however been already available under the title of “Fables of Pilpay”. We don’t know whether Charles Wilkins had also a Bengali issue of this work in his luggage. In spite of a lively market asking for translations from the Sanskrit literature he does not succeed in presenting further translations.
In 1795 –Sir William is already dead – Charles Wilkins publishes yet the story of “Dooshwanta and Sakoontala, translated from the Mahabharata, a poem in Sanskrit, London 1795”. It did not escape our notice that we haven’t been told in which language the Mahabharata Charles Wilkins translated from was written.
Again a gap appears in his biography until Charles Wilkins is employed as a librarian by the East Indian Company in its new opened museum in London. Then, about 1808, he publishes a Sanskrit grammar. He never taught a language called or named Sanskrit.
Sir William is busy even without a dictionary, without a grammar book. He issues continuously interesting stories under the heading “Asiatick researches”. He can get everything printed in Kolkata and distributed via London all over Europe. The East India Company bears the costs. Willingly. It profits from these publications. They conceal efficiently the fact that the Christians in the colonies tramp intentionally and continuously over the “ten commandments” of the Christian faith. Commandments? Aren’t they rather prohibitions?
Sir William prolongs his contract in Kolkata for five more years. He had his wife, Lady Anna Maria, sail back to England already in 1788 for health reasons. His craving for power, fame and wealth was stronger than a reunion with his wife. Sir William dies in Kolkata in 1794, his factory and the products of the latter go on.
None within the sphere of influence of the East India Company has learned and taught Sanskrit in Europe so far. But the interest for Sanskrit in Europe grows rapidly. How comes? A psycho-social analysis of this question and of the European scholars could certainly prove highly explosive.
The 19th century produces many Sanskrit scholars in Europe. It catches one’s eye that only the new Sanskrit scholars pretend to be the real Sanskrit scholars. And these Sanskrit scholars shoot up like mushrooms, as documents prove. All of them Europeans, above all Germans, though the humus should rather be located in Paris and London. Why? Because those manuscripts and books of the ancient literature, which had been robbed indiscriminately, are stored in the local museums. And the German intellectuals do not wish to come away empty-handed in the profit from “colonisation”.
These new scholars learn the language in a peculiar manner. Alexander Hamilton, Antoine Léonard de Chézy, Franz Bopp and August Wilhelm von Schlegel are pioneers. But the first book is published by the younger one of the Schlegel brothers, Friedrich von Schlegel (1772-1829): Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier. Ein Beitrag zur Begründung der Altertumskunde (About the language and the wisdom of the “Indier”. A contribution to the establishment of the study of classical antiquity), Heidelberg 1808. For the enthusiasts of “Oriental sciences” this must have been something like a new Gospel.
Life is full of surprises. In 1803 Dorothea and Friedrich von Schlegel live in Paris. 31-years-old Friedrich wishes to learn Oriental languages. How? He tells us: “…because the richest collection of works in Oriental languages is kept there”. What has the collection of works to do with learning Oriental languages? That’s how it goes: take a translated version and the original version of a work. This translated version can also be a manifold translated one. Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, French and so on and so on. Thus the contents of the original are roughly known. Only as far, of course, as the respective translator has dealt with it. The game of guessing and fancying begins.
“The Schlegels” in Paris are short of money. They rent a large cheap flat. They furnish the rooms for the purpose of subletting. On the 15th of January, 1803 Friedrich writes to his brother August: “…I have already learned (how?) the grammar of the ordinary Indian (Which one? How can he know it?), but I shall not be able to start learning Sanskrit before spring. Because they do not heat the libraries.” Isn’t this interesting?
On the 15th of May, 1803 he reports to his brother about a lucky coincidence. “Otherwise I had an excellent time. Because I did learn a lot, really a lot. I have not only made progress in Persian, but I have at last reached the great goal, that I am sure of my Sanskrit. Within four months I shall be able to read Sakontala in its original version. Although I shall then still need the translation. It did command an enormous effort because of a great complication and a necessary method of my own for guessing and for coping with the trouble, since I had to learn elements without books on elements. At last I was lucky because an Englishman, a certain Hamilton, the only one in Europe except Wilkins who knows, and very thoroughly at that, came to help me at least by his advice.” We could never have better described ourselves this odd method of learning foreign languages.
As early as on the 14th of August, 1803 Friedrich von Schlegel lets his brother August know: “I have worked on Sanskrit without interruption and by now I have reached a fairly solid ground. I have already a heap as high as a hand’s breadth of manuscript which I have copied. I am now copying the second dictionary. 3 – 4 hours written Sanskrit by day, and 1 or 2 more hours worked it through again with Hamilton and in the evening, if I was in good spirits, I still found enough work for further 2 – 3 hours.” He thus copies by hand from the Sanskrit texts and goes over them with Hamilton, who has obviously a better command of the characters of writing.
We do not know where and when Alexander Hamilton learned Sanskrit. We do know that he arrived in Kolkata in the last quarter of 1784, that he served as an officer candidate of the lowest rank in the infantry until 1790 and that he was dismissed as a cadet. He did not get in touch with Sir William or with Charles Wilkins. As a simple infantryman in Kolkata he had no means to hire a “Pandit”. And there are no later indications that one Alexander Hamilton might have ever caught anybody’s eye in Kolkata. Not to speak of Sanskrit-moved “orientalists”.
There is evidence proving that he stayed in Paris for two to three years and compiled a catalogue of Sanskrit and Bengali books and manuscripts so far unsorted, which was printed in 1807 under his name and that of Louis-Mathieu Langlès, a French “orientalist” without any knowledge of Indian languages. Further evidence shows that in 1806 he was put in charge, at the age of 44 years, at the newly established College of the East India Company for the training of junior staff at Hartford, England, as a teacher of Oriental languages. In 1814 he published the “Terms of Sanskrit Grammar”, the only publication bearing his name in addition to the catalogue in Paris. He died, almost unnoticed, in 1824. A truly tragic biography.
It is now up to us to assess the quality of his Sanskrit in Paris, when and where he might have learned that Sanskrit as well as the quality of “European Sanskrit” before being standardized by the first dictionary in 1919.
Antoine Léonard de Chézy is employed in the Egyptian department of the Royal Museum in Paris. The administrators of the looted objects of art are allowed to undertake “educational tours” to Egypt. As such a tour is due in 1803 Antoine Léonard de Chézy falls ill. But fortunately bustling Louis-Mathieu Langlès, the chatterbox of the “Orient-enthusiasts” in Paris, is available. Thus Antoine Léonard de Chézy gets to know from the young German lady Helmine von Hastfer – who is a friend of Dorothea and Friedrich von Schlegel – that Friedrich von Schlegel is being taught Sanskrit by an English internee in Paris, Alexander Hamilton.
There is evidence that Alexander Hamilton and Antoine-Léonard de Chézy met frequently. It is also certain that before these meetings Antoine Léonard de Chézy had no interest in Sanskrit, respectively knew very little about it. He is of course an “Egyptologist”. After his curiosity has been aroused, he learns Sanskrit “secretly” and “self-taught” and definitely after Alexander Hamilton had again left France. As much as I’d like it, I cannot understand how a Frenchman could learn a language such as Sanskrit in Paris without a teacher, without a grammar and dictionaries. “Modern historians” and Indologists have had no trouble so far in getting along with the version “secretly” and “self-taught”.
In those times, also, life was imponderable, full of surprises, even for late “geniuses” human, every now and then too human. 29-years-old Helmine von Hastfer (1783-1856) meets Franz Bopp 1812 as Helmine de Chézy. Franz Bopp will later lay the foundations for German indology. He was born in Mainz on the 14th of September, 1791, grew up in Aschaffenburg. His academic teacher Carl Joseph Hyeronimus Windischmann, professor of philosophy and history, encourages him and his own son to study linguistics, whatever this may be. Franz Bopp is 21 years old in 1812. He realized that there was no future for him in Aschaffenburg.
The real name of restless and “oriental-minded” Helmine is actually Wilhelmine von Klenke. Father an officer, mother a poet. They get divorced early. Wilhelmine “grows up under disorderly conditions”, whatever this might be. At the age of 16, in 1799, she gets married to Gustav Freiherr von Hastfer, one year later she is divorced. The countess de Genlis invites her to Paris in 1801. From 1803 until 1807 she publishes the periodical “Französische Mischellen” (French Miscellanea). In 1805, 22 years old, she gets married to Antoine Léonard de Chézy, a well known “orientalist” in Paris, who teaches Persian since 1807 and later on, in 1813, will become the first European professor of Sanskrit at the Collège de France, at the age of 33 years. In 1810 she gets separated from Antoine Léonard de Chézy but retains his name, stumbles from one liaison to the next, works as a journalist and leads the life of a “women’s lib” of her time. She is also a diligent writer of letters. She will write from 1840 onwards society-reports and her autobiography. She advises young Franz Bopp to travel to Paris because her former husband, Antoine Léonard de Chézy, has command of the Sanskrit language.
Paris is in 1812 an attractive place for “Orient-enthusiasts”. French colonizers and missionaries have diligently gathered manuscripts, books and artistic objects in the colonies, without being able to read and understand them. Actually just looted. These objects of booty land finally in the “Royal Library” or in the “Royal Museum”. They are somehow catalogued. France dragged away more cultural goods from Egypt than from India. The interest of many kinds of people is always focused on such a collection of manuscripts in a library.
On the 1st of January, 1813 Franz Bopp wrote his first letter from Paris to his “most venerable friend” , professor Windischmann. “...ever since I am here I am busy only with Arabic, because I was advised to acquire some skill in it before I go for other oriental languages. After gaining some skill in the Arabic I shall begin with Persian, so I hope after 14 days to be able to read light prose in this language; ...Only the Indian languages are not taught here, and nobody studies them. I shall be the only one in the summer, who is engaged with them. I think indeed to begin with Persian and Sanskrit at the same time during the summer. ...Soon I hope to send you some blossoms of Persian and Indian poets in translation, if only my fate be so favourable as to let me be in Paris long enough. Chézy will be able to afford me good services when I begin the Sanskrit. He is the only one, as I hear, who engages in this language here.”
Franz Bopp and William Jones seemed to be cut and carved from the same wood. We fail to understand why Franz Bopp didn’t begin with Sanskrit immediately. The fact that he was advised to learn Arabic first, revealed actually the ignorance prevailing in Paris in 1812. Obviously it was assumed that Arabic and Sanskrit were related to each other.
His next letter to his academic teacher is dated 29th of April, 1814. “I have overcome the first hurdles of the language of Indian wisdom. I notice to my delight that I am able to master thoroughly the most beautiful, most important, presumably also one of the most difficult languages of the Orient without any help from others. ... I find that the similarity of Sanskrit with Latin and Greek is very large. This can be extended further than Schlegel (Friedrich von) has done.”
Even before he started learning Sanskrit he already knew: “The German language is so very much suitable to render faithfully the original Indian thoughts. And I want to contribute my utmost that it (Ramayana) can be read in German language. I am already now capable to translate the first part, available in English translation. The second part is said also to appear soon. ... Without a translation, even if it were a very free one, I am unable to translate any Indian manuscript yet, Chézy, either, hardly can, although he is engaged in that 6 years longer.” We take note of the date: 27th July, 1814.
In 1812 Franz Bopp comes to Paris in order to learn Sanskrit from Antoine Léonard de Chézy. Until March, 1814 he learns only Arabic. In July he had reported to his academic teacher that he could not learn Sanskrit from Antoine Léonard de Chézy. Why not? Because allegedly Antoine Léonard de Chézy knows no Sanskrit. Besides, Franz Bopp needs no Sanskrit teacher. Because: “Yet I believe… if I shall have properly penetrated everything which has been written in European languages about Indian mythology, and if I can then proceed further and draw from the sources, if I shall have become familiar with India’s philosophical systems, as well as with those of our own country and those of the Greeks, then, dear friend, I shall be ready to understand Indian works without a translation, and if need be even without a dictionary”.
He allegedly masters the Sanskrit characters and their sound so well, that he is already thinking about getting in possession of those in his own way. How should he have achieved command of the sounds? Who will know? He has explained his further procedure to his academic teacher Windischmann on the 27th July, 1814 as follows: “I have devised an alphabet by which one can reproduce the system of Sanskrit alphabetic characters in a pure form, ... Before I write the grammar, I presumably should make my system of characters known and for this purpose I want to take the Bhagawatgita, the most beautiful parts of which you already know from Schlegel’s (Friedrich von) translation, and publish the (original) text with a very literal translation in Latin, and my brother will probably make the Dewanagari alphabetic characters for a few pages.”
He disclosed also his motive behind this undertaking. We read in the same letter dated July 27, 1814: “Whatever is printed in Kolkata in its original text is so expensive that hardly any individual, who is not very rich, can acquire several volumes without great sacrifices. The 1st volume of Ramayana costs here 160 Francs, the grammar of Carey 280 Francs etc.” He was concerned about the “price”. He wanted to print the original texts so cheap that many Germans could afford them. And in order to fulfil this missionary zeal he wanted to “occupy” Sanskrit, take “possession” of Sanskrit, in his own way.
He not only felt fit for this purpose, he formulated even his own claim, also on July 27. He established his claim basing just upon invented facts: “One writes the Sanskrit in more than 10 different ways. Every different nation in India has adapted its system of alphabetic characters to the Dewanagari or to the actual Sanskrit system of alphabetic characters, and writes its Sanskrit accordingly. Why shouldn’t we Europeans, whose languages do actually originate from Sanskrit, also adapt our alphabet to that, in order to spread the precious writings of the “Indier” all the more?”
Well, why shouldn’t the Europeans in the next step even
write their own “Sanskrit–literature“?
Franz Bopp has repeatedly emphasised that he had learnt Sanskrit without any help. I would and could allow for him that he meant by this help from persons. Because, by this time in Paris, the following “grammars” are available: by missionary William Carey, A grammar of the Sungscrit language, 1804, by Henry Thomas Colebrooke, A grammar of the Sanscrit language, 1805, by Charles Wilkins, A grammar of the Sanskrita language, 1808, as well as by the “senior Merchant on the Bengal establishment” H. P. Forster, Their quality? Quite obvious! These were the first ventures by persons with questionable intellectual abilities. The quick sequence of the publishing dates indicates not only haste.
In 1816 Franz Bopp presents in Frankfurt the book: “About the system of conjugation of the Sanskrit language in comparison with those of the Greek, Latin, Persian and German languages. Besides Episodes of the Ramayan and Mahabharat in exact metric translations from the original and a few sections from the Vedas” issued and accompanied with a preface by K. J. Windischmann. How could Franz Bopp acquire all this experience between 1812 and 1816? And what was correct and what was not? Who could or would check up all this?
The Sanskrit-English dictionary Sir William had so fervently waited for is finally published in Kolkata, as late as 1819, under the management of Horace Hayman Wilson (1786-1860). Many “Pandits” are said to have done the complete work. In which language the many “Pandits” should have communicated with the members of the “respectable colonial society” and which may have been the quality of this interchange has not been handed down. The same applies to the real intellectual quality of these “Pandits”. The only certain thing is that they have delivered something which is not possible at all. That is a Sanskrit-English dictionary. The East India Company has financed the whole thing.
August Wilhelm von Schlegel (1767-1835), the older one of the Schlegel brothers, came also to Paris at about the same time as Franz Bopp. There he is introduced by Franz Bopp into the study of Sanskrit. In 1818, at the age of 61, he becomes professor of Sanskrit in Bonn. As the first one in Germany. In 1825, at the age of 34, Franz Bopp becomes professor of Sanskrit in Berlin. Franz Bopp makes it possible that neither England nor France nor Portugal, but Germany develops into the centre of indology. He becomes the highest priest, the supreme authority on Sanskrit.
On the 15th October, 1800 another “William Jones” is born: Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800 – 1859). As the offspring of a renowned evangelical family he gets a better start, but he is otherwise endowed with the same character traits as William Jones. He will develop not only into the “Godfather” (Pate) of the theory of the “Arian race”.
He is extraordinarily precocious, he begins his training 1818 at the Trinity College, Cambridge, gets known as an endless orator and a congenial chum under the outstanding young men in Cambridge. 1822 he gets his B.A., studies the Law without enthusiasm, writes poems.
In 1823 yet another “William Jones” is born in Dessau, Friedrich Maximilian Müller.
In 1826 Thomas Babington is licensed as a solicitor, but never gets to seriously practice the profession. As opposite to William Jones he has got to earn a living for the whole family since his father goes bankrupt. As a private teacher, by writing and from the income of a lower job in the government. At the age of 30 he manages to win the election to the Chamber of Commons for the Whigs of Caine in Wiltshire. As an eloquent orator in a time full of mighty speakers he is appointed Secretary to the “Board of Control” of the East India Company. He climbs rapidly in his career. So do his ambitions.
In Parliament he tinkers at a bill, whereby he earns the lucrative position of a legal adviser to the “Supreme Council of India”. The respective passage in the Encyclopaedia Britannica will later spell as follows: „In 1834 Macaulay accepted an invitation to serve on the recently created „Supreme Council“ of India, foreseeing that he could save from his salary enough to give him a competence for life.“
Is this a fake of history? Whatever be. In 1834 he sails to Kolkata with his sister Hannah, who will soon leave him in order to get married to one Charles Edward Trevelyan. She and her son will later be his biographers. Thus the intrigues in Parliament by which Thomas Babington Macaulay gets his income increased from £ 1500 to £ 10000 remain undiscovered. This is how biographers write “history”.
In Kolkata he introduces on the 2nd of February, 1835 a draft of the education programme for colonized India. On the 7th of March a deliberation is passed accordingly. The centre piece of his programme reads: “I have no knowledge of either Sanscrit or Arabic. – But I have done what I could to form a correct estimate of their value. I have read translations of the most celebrated Arabic and Sanskrit works. ...I am quite ready to take the Oriental learning at the valuation of the Orientalists themselves. I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The intrinsic superiority of the Western literature, is, indeed, fully admitted (...) In India, English is the language spoken by the ruling class. ...of all foreign tongues, the English tongue is that which would be most useful to our native subjects. (...) We are not content to leave the natives to the influence of their own hereditary prejudices. (...) it is possible to make natives of this country thoroughly good English scholars. ... We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions we govern; a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population.”
This is a thorough programme for cultural cloning. In a letter to his father Thomas Babington Macaulay wrote on the 12th October, 1836: “It is my firm belief that, if our plan of education is followed up, there will not be a single idolater among respectable classes in Bengal thirty years hence. And this will be effected without any efforts to proselytise, without the smallest interference with religious liberty, merely by natural operation of knowledge and reflection. I heartily rejoice in this prospect.”
After his return to England in 1838 Thomas Babington Macaulay soon has again a seat in the House of Commons, now for Edinburgh. He is searching all over Europe for “scholars” who would be prepared to translate old Sanskrit literature and the Vedas in his spirit. This translation should convince the “new class” of the blond-blue-eyed-white-Christian culture in “India” that the New Testament of the Bible is superior to the old Vedas. In 1854 he finds at last Friedrich Maximilian Müller (1823-1900) from Dessau. In 1859 the latter invents the “Theory of the Aryan Race”. He pretends to have found a spot in the Rigveda in which the “Aryan Race” is praised. Besides, it is proven that he can spell the Vedas only in Devanagari characters. Not to speak of reading and understanding the Veda texts. Not earlier than in 1878 will he be forced to admit that the Veda texts are not written in classical Sanskrit.
Friedrich Maximilian Müller is born in Dessau, the capital city of the small independent principality of Anhalt- Dessau on the 6th of December, 1823. The grandfather is a simple trader, but he is said to have been a respected person. The father, Wilhelm, becomes teacher at the Gymnasium, marries Adelheide von Basedow. The Basedows are esteemed in Dessau. Father Wilhelm dies at the age of 33, but he leaves no fortune to his wife, his 6-years-old daughter and his 4-years-old son. Poverty characterizes Friedrich Maximilian. Adelheide, the widow, lives at the beginning in the household of her father, but rents later on a ground floor flat in a tiny house. She must make ends meet with approximately 150 “Thaler” a year. Ambitious mother, high school final examination in Dessau, a small scholarship of 15 “Thaler” at the Leipzig University, students’ association, study of philology, classical Greek and Latin literature and philosophy. He studies in Leipzig for about two years. He has not studied longer anywhere else.
The following little story reveals him in every respect. It is the year 1841. Baron Hagedorn is “a very close friend” of a cousin of Friedrich Maximilian. She is married to a prince of Dessau. They came to the conclusion that Friedrich Maximilian should study oriental languages at the Oriental Institute in Vienna and thereafter join the diplomatic service. He should also be adopted by them and given a princely name. Friedrich Maximilian rejected the offer. Why? He didn’t want to be unfaithful to his first love, the Sanskrit. You don’t believe this nice little story?
The source is his autobiography, written in his old age, placed on the page before last (p. 93) before the chapter “At the university”. In accordance with the duties of a chronicler I must remark that Friedrich Maximilian Müller came first in touch with Sanskrit in the Winter- term of 1841/42.
Hermann Brockhaus comes to Leipzig in the winter-term of 1841/42. His Sanskrit teachers are August Wilhelm von Schlegel and Christian Lassen. Well, the “school” of self-taught Franz Bopp. Brockhaus lectures on Sanskrit grammar. What did he base it upon?
Before leaving for Berlin Friedrich Maximilian wishes also to hear a lecture on Rigveda. ermann Brockhaus All indologists read Asiatick Researches. Thomas Henry Colebrooke – another one with a slippery biography and without any knowledge of Sanskrit – has published in 1801 an essay about Rigveda. Every indologist tampers with Rigveda upon this basis ever since. But Friedrich Maximilian doesn’t get so far. Because: “Here my ‘Collegien-Buch’ breaks off, the fact being that I was preparing to go to Berlin to hear the lectures of Bopp and Schelling.” There is no mention whatsoever of an exam in Leipzig in his autobiography.
Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin was no university like the one in Leipzig. This was rather an educational establishment where one could only doctorate and habilitate. Open also for beginners who however had to pay twice as much fee as those with a degree from another university. Friedrich Maximilian Müller was matriculated at the Friedrich Wilhelm University as a beginner student at the theological faculty shown upon his handwritten transfer document. Bopp and Schelling taught at the faculty of philosophy.
Franz Bopp meets Friedrich Maximilian Müller „very friendly“, but this is still a disappointment for him, because Franz Bopp (p. 128-129, autobiography) “...though he was extremely kind to me, was at the time, if not old – he was fifty-three – very infirm. In his lectures he simply read his ‘Comparative Grammar’ with a magnifying glass, and added very little that was new. He lent me some manuscripts which he had copied in Latin in his younger days (I am thankful to him for this interesting insight into the diligent activities of Franz Bopp in Paris), but I could not get much help from him when I came to really difficult passages.”
Also in Berlin he sees no chance to get to finals. He however makes an entry in his diary (Nirad C. Chauduri, biograph, in Scholar Extraordinary, p. 43): “I cannot give up Sanskrit, though it holds out no prospect for me.”Two months later he reached even a deeper level of dejection and wrote to his mother: “I am longing to be away from Berlin, to get a thorough change of thought, as really think I have every chance here of becoming a confirmed hypochondriac. This is no mere transitory feeling, bit it is founded on my circumstances, which have cost me many sad thoughts latterly. I acknowledge that the plan of life I had formed is not to be realised; that it is difficult for me to part with all these favourite ideas you can well imagine. And yet it would be folly in my circumstances to attempt a university career.”
How big his disappointment with Franz Bopp was can be also assessed by the fact that he set forth his “hiking tour” to Paris already after having spent only ¾ of a year in Berlin. His decision is made for Paris because he wishes to set forth his studies of Sanskrit there. With the French indologist Eugène Burnouf. He is professor for Sanskrit at the “Collège de France” since 1832. He could have learned Sanskrit only from Antoine Léonard de Chézy, i. e. the one who, like Franz Bopp, pretends to have learned Sanskrit without any help from outside, as we remember. 22-years-old Friedrich Maximilian Müller must yet learn French in Paris, too.
For Paris he gets no scholarship and must earn his living. There are more people interested in Sanskrit than available Sanskrit texts. Copiers do not exist yet. There is, of course, a market for handwritten copies. With the usual copying mistakes, obviously. But who cares? Let us read in Friedrich Maximilian Müller’s autobiography, pp. 142-143: “All I could do to earn a little money was to copy and collate MSS. for other people. I might indeed have given private lessons, but I have always had a strong objection to that form of drudgery, and would rather sit up the whole night copying than give an hour to my pupils. My plan was as follows: to sit up the whole of one night, to take about three hours’ rest the next night, but without undressing, and then to take a good night’s rest the third night, and start over again.”
Until 1846 he has copied all manuscripts available in Paris also for himself. He knows that the East India Company has at its disposal more sizeable manuscripts. He can plan only a fortnight’s stay in London. In his predicament he pays a call to Baron Christian Karl Josias von Bunsen (1791-1860). He is the esteemed Prussian envoy at the Royal court in London. He is said to have met Müller’s father in Rome as he was envoy at the Vatican. He is a believing Christian and also a forestalled Orientalist. During his time as a student he had read Henry Thomas Colebrooke’s essay on the “Veda” of 1801. As the 23-year-old Friedrich Maximilian Müller informs him of his intention to collect the complete Rigveda, his old longing comes alive once more. He will support Friedrich Maximilian Müller to the best of his capacity.
And he is very “capable”, not only financially. Whilst Friedrich Maximilian Müller diligently copies manuscripts, Baron Bunsen succeeds, after long negotiations, to get Friedrich Maximilian Müller on the pay list of the East India Company. The Company is ready to upkeep him with £ 200 yearly and to finance the publication of Rigveda. But the East India Company hires no “legionnaire” without control. He is put under the care of a sharp “watchdog”, Horace Hyman Wilson. Yes, the same Horace Hyman Wilson who first “Christianized” the Sanskrit circulating nowadays by the Sanskrit-English dictionary in 1819. Another one with a “variegated” biography.
If it is possible to gain command of a foreign language by copying manuscripts in that language, then Friedrich Maximilian Müller is the greatest Sanskrit scholar of all times. After becoming a mercenary of the East India Company he has no wish or no need to learn further Sanskrit.
On the occasion of an attractive party Baron Bunsen learns in 1854 that Thomas Babington Macaulay has been searching after a trustworthy “Sanskrit scholar” who would be able to provide a long term efficient flank protection for his “education policy” in India since quite a while. The introduction of the English education system in India does guarantee that “No Hindoo who has received an English education ever continues to be sincerely attached to his religion”. The making of his “new class”, ‘a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions we govern, a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and intellect,’ got on well., It is true. Now it was high time to take precautions and ensure that there was no relapse. Ancient Sanskrit texts were to be “translated” in the Christian spirit. The translations must overflow the market. Translations diverging from this spirit should be pushed away from the market.
Baron Bunsen fixed up an appointment with Thomas Babington Macaulay for Friedrich Maximilian Mueller in December 1854, when the latter was 31 years old. He is selected for the immunization of the “new class”. For the good money of the East India Company. Allegedly the amount was of £10.000 yearly. A princely salary for someone who had achieved no academic graduation at any university and was not even able to get, in spite of many efforts, an assistant job in Germany, the Eldorado of indology. He spread the rumour that in the “Hymns” of the Rigveda the immigrated “Indo-Europeans” named themselves “Aryans” and celebrated their original home-country. It is also his “creation” that henceforth the alleged immigrants have acquired a racial identity. The trouble is however that during his “creations” he did not even know the difference between the Vedic language and Sanskrit.
On the other hand he knew very exactly how to be of service to his patron. He divulged successfully: “To learn Sanskrit from a Pandit in India according to the native system of grammar, must be a most tedious process and this is the very reason why this part of a civilian’s education should be finished in England with the assistance of grammars, dictionaries, and reading books, composed on a more rational system than the grammar of Panini, the Mahabhashya, and the Amara-kosha.”
He published 51 volumes Sacred Books of the East and pretends even to have translated some of them. Thus the quality of the translation of Sanskrit texts is put even under the level of the dictionaries of Horace Hayman Wilson (1819). Afterwards Friedrich Maximilian Müller remembers the “treasure” he gathered “in the valley of tears” during his hiking years. In his endless zeal as a copyist he got hold of all Sanskrit texts wandering about in Europe. Why not date these Sanskrit texts? None shall be able to question this dating during his lifetime. Thought of and done. He was right.
As late as 1854 a “Bachelor of Arts of Oxford” publishes a “Pandit”-free Sanskrit-English-dictionary, which was successful worldwide. The one by William Monier Monier. How did he do it? So what!
Let me conclude my speech with a short revealing episode, which can be found on page 289 in the life-memories of Friedrich Maximilian Müller: “While I was sitting in my room at Oxford copying Sanskrit MSS., a gentleman was shown in, dressed a long black coat, looking different from my usual visitors, and addressing me in a language of which I did not understand a single word. I spoke to him in English, and asked him what language he was speaking, and replied with great surprise, ‘Do you not understand Sanskrit?’ ‘No’, I said, ‘I have never heard it spoken, but here are some MSS. of the Veda which will interest you.’ He was delighted to see them, and began to read, but he had soon to confess that he was not able to translate a single word. When I expressed my surprise – though perhaps I ought not to have done so – he told me that he did not believe in the Veda any longer, but had become a Christian. His countenance was most intelligent, and almost heavy with thought, his language and his manners most winning, and we were soon deep in the conversation. His name had been Nîlakantha Goreh – Nîlakantha being a name of Siva (the blue neck) – but had been changed into Nehemiah Goreh, when he became a Christian.”